Five years ago, researchers at Harvard Medical School released a video of an experiment, revealing how easy it is for bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics.
The team constructed a large petri dish for growing bacteria and separated it into distinct bands. Across the dish, the bands contained progressively higher concentrations of antibiotic, from 0 to 1,000 times the concentration that bacteria can normally tolerate. Then they grew bacteria, starting in the band with no antibiotics.
In 2018, Professors J.P. Allison and T. Honjo were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy, engineering the immune system such that it targets cancer cells more aggressively.
Despite scientists having invested more than a hundred years in researching cancer treatments, it nonetheless remains one of the leading causes of death in the modern age. Difficulties in treating cancer arise particularly out of the numerous different types, as well as vast differences in tumour physiology.
This breakthrough in immunotherapy is on par with the development of chemotherapy, and is positioned to revolutionise the…
Side effects are a natural part of vaccination. Some individuals have reported feeling more significant side effects from their second shot compared to their first, and the reason behind it can easily be explained using science.
The fundamental principle of vaccinations is to stimulate and train the immune system in order to retain immunological memory. Much like how the police can put up “wanted posters” to help identify a criminal, vaccinations prime the immune system to remember a pathogen (disease-causing organisms), such that if it is ever encountered again, it can be met more rapidly and with greater intensity.
There is no better way to learn Object Oriented Programming in Java than to code a game.
It teaches you how to create classes and the importance of the abstraction of code to reduce redundancy. You learn how to structure a large application and the importance of making testcases. But most importantly, you learn to code in a fun and engaging way.
If you’d like to code alongside this article, you can download the project specifications and assets here.
“Everyone bangs on about rising sea levels but the real challenge of a warming planet is ocean acidification. An acid ocean spells the end of life on earth.” — Tim Winton
The first time I learnt about ocean acidification was from my high school chemistry teacher. In a few short minutes, he explained to me that not only was the combustion of fossil fuels contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect, the atmospheric carbon dioxide was reacting with the water of the oceans, turning into carbonic acid.
This would render the ocean uninhabitable for marine organisms, threatening the fundamental underlying chemical…
In 2015, Scott McIntyre was given four months to live.
The diagnosis was obvious: a malignant B-cell lymphoma that had spread to the lungs. His doctors had tried everything — several rounds of chemotherapy, a stem cell transplant, and targeted radiation therapy, but the cancer kept coming back.
His doctors were almost out of options. They proposed an experimental and uncertain immunotherapy called CAR-T cell therapy. His own immune cells would be taken from his body, genetically engineered, and infused back into his blood in an attempt to destroy the cancer. …
In 2018, two twin girls were born to the world, Lulu and Nana. The pregnancy had been normal, except for one important detail. This was a world first in performing gene surgery, manually changing the twins’ DNA such that they would have a specific “delta32” mutation within the CCR5 gene. This meant that the twins were now completely immune from HIV.
This is how they gained complete immunity.
Every second of your life, you are under attack by billions of bacteria, viruses and fungi, all competing to use you as their new home.
Fortunately, your immune system is capable of…